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What is Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


What is HTML

Hypertext markup language (HTML) was introduced in the year 1990. Since then, there has been a continuous evolution in technology leading to the introduction of new versions. Some features were introduced in the specification, whereas others were introduced in the software release. HTML 4 was recommended as a standard by W3C in 1997. HTML5 is the next version of HTML and will be the new standard. HTML 4.01 was the previous version of HTML which was released in 1999. since then, there have been content evolution and additions to the World Wide Web (WWW). The majority of browsers support HTML5 elements and application programming interfaces (API).

Extensible HTML (XHTML)

XHTML is a language that combines HTML with Extensible Markup language (XML). XML allows defining your data in a structured format, which can be displayed in any browser. When you use XHTML with JavaScript, the required user-defined data is displayed each time the Web page is loaded in the browser.

Dynamic HTML (DHTML)

Dynamic HTML (DHTML) uses JavaScript and CSS to make dynamic Web pages. It allows you to transform the look and feel of web pages. It allows Web pages to respond to the user's actions and enables focus on the content changes in the browser.


HTML is a markup language used primarily to create hypertext Web pages, which are published on the Web and displayed in any web browser. A markup language is a set of notations that specifies how the content should look in the browser. HTML is derived from standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), Which is the mother language of HTML. SGML is a markup language that defines the structure of another markup language.
HTML has evolved over the years with the
 introduction of an improved set of standards and specifications. HTML 1.0 was the first version of HTML introduced in 1993. at that time, there were very less people involved in designing Websites. HTML 2.0 was introduced in 1995 and included the complete HTML 1.0 specifications with additional features. other versions are as follows:


HTML 3.0 specification included new features for the Netscape Navigator browser as it became very popular. the new improvement did not work on any other answers such as internet exploration therefore, this specification was abandoned.

HTML 3.2

Additional browser-specific features revolutionized the requirement for the standardization of HTML. Therefore, the worldwide consortium (W3C) organization was formed to specify and maintain the HTML standards. HTML 3.2 was the first specification introduced by W3C in January 1997 and was fully supported by all web browsers.


W3C introduced HTML 4.0 in December 1997 with the motive of facilitating support for CSS, DHTML, and JavaScript. however, HTML 4.0 prevailed for a short period and was revised, which led to the HTML 4.01 specification in 1999.


HTML5 is a cooperative project between the W3C and the Web hypertext application technology working group (WHATWG). W3C was busy working with XHTML 2.0 and WHATWG was working with web forms, new HTML features, and applications. in 2006, the two groups decided to work together and develop a new version of HTML. 

Some basic rules for HTML5 that were established are as follows:

  • The introduction of new features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOMand JavaScript.

  • More markup should be used to replace scripting.

  • HTML must be device-independent.

  • Requirement for external plug-ins, such as flash, to be reduced.

  • Better error-handling capabilities.

  • The development process should be completely visible to the public.

New Features of HTML5

Some of the new features introduced in HTML5 are as follows:

  • The canvas element is used for 2D drawing.

  • New content-specific elements, such as article, nav, header, footer, section, and so on help to structure the document.

  • HTML5 has local storage support.

  • The audio and video elements are available for media playback.

  • New form control, such as calendar, date, time, e-mail, URL, search, and so on have been provided by HTML5.

  • The web worker API is added to support background processes without disturbing the main process. The common problem faced by Web applications is slow performance when a large set of data is processed. This is because all processes are executed in a single thread. Web Workers help to solve this problem.

  • The web sockets API provides a continuous connection between a server and a client by using a specific port. Thus, Web applications become efficient as the data can be easily exchanged between client and server without reloading the page constantly.

  • Easier access to location-specific data which is made available by devices having Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities. This improved functionality is achieved with the help of APIs.

  • HTML5 allows Web applications to be executed offline by storing the files and other resources required in the application cache. Web application data is saved locally using a Web SQL database.

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